Contact TheIPD.US

Regulatory Actions
View Public Comments
Submit Comments

NMFS ITA for Gulf of Mexico
NMFS Acoustic Guidelines
NMFS IHA for Scripps

  Best Available Science on Acoustic Effects on Marine Mammals
  Seismic vs. Sonar
  Physical Effects
 Behavioral Effects
  Sound Propagation
 Extrapolation From Terrestrial Mammal Acoustic Effects to Marine Mammals
  Cumulative and Synergistic Effects
 Indirect Effects

  US Navy
 Sperm Whale Seismic Study
 Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory Institute
 The Acoustic Ecology Institute
 Fisheries and Oceans Canada
 Sakhalin Energy Investment Company Limited

 Relevant NMFS Permits
 Major Studies and Reports

Comment on IPD
  Potential Research Projects
  Research Underway
  Structure of the IPD

CRE Interventions
  Agency Administrative Actions


Soundings Archive

NMFS Celebrates 40th Anniversary of Marine Mammal Protection Act with Article on MMPA Enforcement
The U.S. Marine Mammal Protection Act is 40 years old in October 2012. The U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service is charged with enforcing the MMPA. As part of the birthday celebration, NMFS has published an article on its criminal enforcement of the MMPA. This article explains:

"The [MMPA] prohibits, with certain exceptions, the 'take' of marine mammals and defines 'take' as 'harassment, hunting, capturing, killing or collecting,' or the attempt to do so. Violations can result in a civil penalty up to $11,000 as well as criminal penalties up to $100,000 and imprisonment of up to a year or both."

NMFS' article discusses some of the difficulties in investigating violations of the MMPA. For example, "It's a big ocean, marine mammals are consumed or decompose quickly in the water, and witnesses don't come forward or even exist."

According to this article, NMFS Office of Law Enforcement opened 470 MMPA cases.

  • Click here to read NMFS' article on MMPA enforcement
    Copyright 2005 The Center for Regulatory Effectiveness.
    All rights reserved.